The month January (januarius in Latin) was named in honour of ancient Roman God Janus. In the Gregorian calendar, January is the first month of the year.
As the Gregorian Calendar is used in our country, the 1st day of January is considered the beginning of the new year.
International Women’s Day
The 8th of March is the international day of solidarity of women in the struggle for the equality of rights. First it was marked in 1911 in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Denmark. And in Azerbaijan, it was first celebrated in 1917.
In the past, this holiday used to be celebrated on different dates. Celebration of the women’s day on the 8th of March became a tradition after women in Austria, Hungary, Russia, USA and other countries started to mark their solidarity day just on this date.
Novruz Holiday is the most favourite national holiday of the Azerbaijani people. We celebrate the Novruz Holiday during 20-24 March.
Novruz Holiday has an old history. In this holiday, associated with the arrival of spring, such traditions as growing malt, dyeing eggs, jumping over water, lighting a bonfire, jumping over a bonfire etc. have been preserved for hundreds of years. Novruz is a holiday of kindness and abundance. Therefore, those bearing a grudge are reconciled with on this holiday.
Day of Victory over Fascism
The Second World War (1939-1945) has remained in memories as a horrible and tragic period for the mankind. In the war against fascism, the people of Azerbaijan has shown great heroism and courage both at the front and in the rear.
Each year, our nation celebrates the 9th of May as a Day of Victory over Fascism
Day of Republic
The 28th of May is a favourite holiday of the Republic of Azerbaijan. On the same day of 1918, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was established. The age of our republic is calculated starting from that year.
The Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was the first democratic republic in the Muslim Orient. This republic could only live 23 months. On April 28, 1920, the 11th Army of the Bolshevik occupied Azerbaijan, and the republic fell.
May 28th has been celebrated as the Day of Republic since our nation regained its independence in 1991.
National Salvation Day
In October 1991, Azerbaijan regained its independence. In the first years of independence, domestic position in the country had become tense, and there was a threat of civil war. In addition, the Armenian aggression was becoming stronger day-by-day. In such a difficult time of the Homeland, Heydar Aliyev returned to power. On June 15, 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Thus the 15th of June entered our history as the National Salvation Day.
Armed Forces Day
The National Army of Azerbaijan was established on June 26, 1918. But after Azerbaijan was annexed by the Soviet Empire, its National Army was disbanded.
Our National Army was restored after the country regained its independence in 1991. Today, the Azerbaijani Army is the strongest and most organized army in the South Caucasus.
Each year, on the 26th of June, our nation celebrates the Day of Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Military parade of our National Army is held on this day.
State Independence Day
On October 18, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan passed the Constitutional Law “On state independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan”. This was the final point of the Azerbaijani people’s struggle for state independence.
Each year, our nation celebrates the 18th of October as the State Independence Day.
Day of State Flag
The state flag of Azerbaijan was first adopted as a national flag with a decision of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan dated 9 November 1918, and it was used as a state symbol until April 1920.
On November 17, 1988, while public and political processes occurred around Daghlyg Garabagh, the flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was unofficially raised on today’s Azadlyg Square, in Baku, following the initiative of intelligentsia. At a session of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic’s Supreme Soviet chaired by national leader Heydar Aliyev on November 17, 1990, the flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted as the state flag of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. Restoring its state independence by the relevant constitutional law on October 18, 1991, the Republic of Azerbaijan adopted the state symbols of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, including the State Flag, while declaring itself its successor.
On November 12, 1995, the first Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted at a public referendum.
The First Constitution of independent Azerbaijan has laid the foundation of the statehood of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The new Constitution of Azerbaijan consists of 5 sections, 12 chapters and 158 articles.
National Revival Day
In the first days of 1988, open aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan started. Over 200 thousand Azerbaijanis residing in Armenia were forced out of their homes on a mass scale. Thereafter, early in February 1988, Armenians started unrests in the Daghlyg Garabagh Region of Azerbaijan. They raised a question of annexing Daghlyg Garabagh, a historical land of Azerbaijan, to Armenia.
As a sign of protest against the acts of the Armenian leadership and Soviet Empire, on November 17, 1988, a termless meeting of the Azerbaijani society started on the Azadlyg Square - the main square of Baku. For this reason, November 17 is celebrated as the National Revival Day since 1992.
Solidarity Day of the World Azerbaijanis
The foundation of the Solidarity Day of the World Azerbaijanis was laid late in December 1989 in Nakhchivan when the border between USSR and Iran was destroyed. The border poles between the North and South Azerbaijan were removed.
On December 16, 1991, Chairperson of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic’s Supreme Assembly Heydar Aliyev, taking into account the significance of forming the unity of the world Azerbaijanis, declared the 31st of December the Solidarity Day of the World Azerbaijanis. Thus, each year, December 31 is celebrated as a holiday of the world Azerbaijanis.
A religious ceremony, Gurban Holiday is celebrated every year throughout the whole Muslim world. The ceremony of cutting sacrificial animals goes back to times preceding Islam.
Cutting of a sacrificial animal in this religious ceremony emerged after a story associated with Prophet Ibrahim. God, in order to test His favourite Prophet Ibrahim’s loyalty, asked him to cut his only son Ismail as a sacrifice, and when Prophet Ibrahim knocked down his son to cut his head without any hesitation, an angel sent by God – Gabriel - descended from the Heaven and stopped him and said that God expressed His satisfaction with his act, and suggested him to cut a ship sent by Allah.
This story, which has left a deep trace in the religious history, is an example of faith in God.
Gurban Holiday is celebrated in the 10th day of Month of Zil Hijjah, the 12th month of the Muslim calendar (Hegira calendar). Special holiday namaz is performed at mosques on the holiday, and sheep, ram, cow, bull or camel is cut and distributed among those in need, and funeral repast is given.
Ramadan Holiday is celebrated in connection with the ending of fasting. Fasting in Ramadan was recommended to Muslims in the second year (Year 622) of the Hegira calendar. During Ramadan, to eat, drink, smoke etc. . is prohibited during the light day-time. Only children, the ill, those fighting at the front, and those being on a trip are released from this duty.
Fasting ends with “Eid al-Fitr ” holiday. On this very day, all wealthy Muslims must help needy Muslims.
The month of Ramadan teaches people the principles of loving God, gives them opportunity to test their will and stamina, and directs them towards being clever and honest.